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  邓飞,窦爱霞,袁小祥.轻小型无人机在房屋建筑结构类型调查中的应用[J].震灾防御技术,2017,12(4):786-796, DOI:10.11899/zzfy20170407.

轻小型无人机在房屋建筑结构类型调查中的应用
摘要:    房屋建筑结构数据是了解房屋抗震设防能力的基础,获取房屋建筑结构信息具有重要的现实意义。本文在简单介绍无人机遥感系统、房屋建筑信息无人机遥感调查技术流程的基础上,以全国多地多架次飞行任务为应用实例,对无人机照片进行筛选、姿态匹配、照片拼接、纹理映射等处理,获取了房屋建筑密集区的正射镶嵌图和三维场景模型,然后对房屋建筑结构类型进行目视判读,并与地面调查的真实结果比对分析,计算得到目视判读的准确率为91.17%,Kappa系数为0.80。结果表明,轻小型无人机轻便灵活,获取的三维场景模型能有效、直观、准确地进行房屋建筑结构类型判定,可弥补传统实地调查的不足,为评估大范围建筑物的抗震能力提供重要的参考依据。
作者单位
邓飞 中国地震局地震预测研究所, 北京 100036 
窦爱霞 中国地震局地震预测研究所, 北京 100036 
袁小祥 中国地震局地震预测研究所, 北京 100036 
关  键  词:轻小型无人机  房屋建筑结构  正射影像  倾斜摄影  三维重建
DOI:10.11899/zzfy20170407
基金项目:中国地震局地震预测研究所基本科研业务专项(2013IES0204)、地震行业科研专项(201508010)
收稿日期:2017-04-11
作者简介:邓飞,男,生于1991年。硕士研究生。主要从事遥感与GIS应用研究。E-mail:feid163@163.com
通讯作者:
Application of Light-small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Investigating Structural Types of Buildings
Abstract:      The data of building structure is the basic information of seismic fortification and to gain the data has important practical significance. In this paper we introduced a system of unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing (UAVSS) and technique of investigating building information by using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Firstly, taking some flight missions as application examples, we conducted some processing steps, which include screening photos, matching posture, stitching images and texture mapping. Then we obtained the orthographic mosaic images and 3-Dimensional scene models in building compact districts. Secondly, the structural types of buildings are interpreted by visual method using 3-Dimensional scene models, and the visual results are compared with realistic consequences of ground surveys. Finally, the visual interpretation accuracy is calculated. The value of accuracy is 91.17% and the Kappa coefficient is 0.80. The result shows that the light-small UAV is flexible and convenient. Using 3-Dimensional scene models which are acquired by UAV, we can directly and accurately interpreted the information of building structure. The approach can make up for the inadequacy of traditional field investigation and provide significant reference frame for a wide range of building aseismic capability assessment.
Keywords:  Light-small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)  Building structure  Orthophoto  Oblique photography  3-Dimensional reconstruction
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