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  张琰,李佳威,蒋长胜,吴健,隗永刚.地震灾害对环境与生态的影响——不容忽视的可持续发展问题[J].震灾防御技术,2020,15(1):194-201, DOI:10.11899/zzfy20200119.

地震灾害对环境与生态的影响——不容忽视的可持续发展问题
摘要:    地震及其链生灾害除造成人员伤亡和经济损失等直接影响外,还可造成水污染、土壤污染、大气污染等环境问题,也可造成土壤侵蚀、耕地退化、动物栖息地丧失、生物多样性退化等生态灾难。本文总结了近年来部分造成环境与生态影响的地震案例,讨论了相关学者对相应影响机制和机理的研究及减少影响的可能措施和面临的问题。随着我国经济社会的快速发展,科学开展地震及其链生灾害对环境与生态影响的研究、采取有效的震前设防和震后断链措施是切实防范重大风险、保持经济社会和环境可持续发展的重要考量。
作者单位
张琰 中国地震局地球物理研究所, 北京 100081
意大利的理雅斯特大学数学与地球科学学院, 意大利的理雅斯特 34128 
李佳威 中国地震局地球物理研究所, 北京 100081
北京大学地球与空间科学学院, 北京 100871
苏黎世联邦理工学院瑞士地震服务中心, 瑞士苏黎世 CH-8092 
蒋长胜 中国地震局地球物理研究所, 北京 100081 
吴健 中国地震灾害防御中心, 北京 100029 
隗永刚 中国地震局地球物理研究所, 北京 100081 
关  键  词:地震灾害风险  灾害链  环境与生态  可持续发展
DOI:10.11899/zzfy20200119
基金项目:
收稿日期:2019-09-11
作者简介:张琰,男,生于1993年。博士研究生。主要从事地震危险性评估和统计地震学研究。E-mail:zhangyan@cea-igp.ac.cn
通讯作者:蒋长胜,男,生于1979年。研究员。主要从事地震监测技术和地震预测理论研究。E-mail:jiangcs@cea-igp.ac.cn
The Impact of Earthquake Disaster on Environment and Ecology: A Notable Sustainable Development Problem
Abstract:      In addition to cause casualties, economic losses and other direct impacts, earthquakes and their aftermath disaster chain also result in not only environmental problems including water, soil and air pollution, but also ecological disasters, such as soil erosion, degradation of arable land, destroy of animal habitat, biodiversity reduction and so on. This paper summarizes part of earthquake events that have caused environmental and ecological impacts in recent years, and discusses the influence mechanisms in the affecting processes and possible measures to reduce relevant risks from related literatures. With the fast development of Chinese economy and society, it is significant consideration of effectively guarding against major risks and maintaining sustainable development of economy and society to scientifically investigate the environmental and ecological impact of earthquakes and their aftermath chain of disasters, and taking effective measures to do more preparations before major earthquakes and cut off the disaster chain after destructive earthquakes.
Keywords:  Earthquake disaster risk  Disaster chain  Environment and ecology  Sustainable development
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