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  尹志军,李丽慧,王雪芳,霍腾飞.基于GIS的天津市应急避难场所选址评价[J].震灾防御技术,2020,15(3):571-580, DOI:10.11899/zzfy20200311.

基于GIS的天津市应急避难场所选址评价
摘要:    应急避难场所在城市应急管理体系中占有重要地位,对已建成的应急避难场所选址进行评价,可为应急避难场所个体改进、布局优化和新建选址提供依据。本文在文献研究与天津市城市特点分析的基础上,从有效性、安全性、可达性3个维度构建包含8个评价因子的应急避难场所选址适宜性评价指标体系,应用层次分析法(AHP)确定指标权重。应用GIS空间分析技术建立应急避难场所空间点位分析模型和覆盖范围模型,对天津市27个应急避难场所进行适宜性评价,并对中心城区14个应急避难场所进行满足性评价。结果表明,天津市应急避难场所具有良好的基础,但总体适宜性水平有待进一步提高,尤其是安全性亟需加强;天津市中心城区人口密集,但应急避难场所数量少,服务区域有限,存在较大范围的覆盖盲区,其中和平区人均有效避难面积仅0.2m2,远小于人体最低占用面积0.6m2,达不到人均有效避难要求。
作者单位
尹志军 河北工业大学, 经济管理学院, 天津 300401 
李丽慧 河北工业大学, 经济管理学院, 天津 300401 
王雪芳 河北工业大学, 经济管理学院, 天津 300401 
霍腾飞 河北工业大学, 经济管理学院, 天津 300401 
关  键  词:天津市  中心城区  应急避难场所  选址适宜性  满足性  GIS空间分析技术
DOI:10.11899/zzfy20200311
基金项目:河北省社会科学基金项目(HB20YJ006)
收稿日期:2019-06-20
作者简介:尹志军,男,生于1977年。副教授。主要从事项目管理与风险控制方面的研究。E-mail:yinzhijun2006@126.com
通讯作者:
Location Selection of the Emergency Shelters in Tianjin: An Evaluation Based on GIS
Abstract:      Emergency shelter plays an important role in the urban public safety system. The research on the completed emergency shelter is helpful to provide evidence for individual improvement、layout optimization and site selection of emergency shelter. Based on literature research and analysis of city characteristics of Tianjin, this paper constructed emergency shelter location suitability system concluding 8 evaluation factors from three dimensions of effectiveness, safety, and accessibility, and AHP is used to determine the index weight. Then the paper applied the spatial analysis of GIS to construct spatial position model and coverage model for the suitability and satisfaction of 27 emergency shelters in Tianjin. The results show that the emergency shelters in Tianjin have a good foundation, but general suitability level needs to be improved, especially safety desiderates strengthening. In addition, central city of Tianjin has concentration of population, but emergency shelters have characteristics of small amount and limited service area, so that there is a wide range of blind zone of the coverage. And for Heping District, the per capita effective refuge area is only 0.2 m2, which is obviously smaller than the minimum occupancy area of human body and can't meet effective refuge demand of most sheltering people completely.
Keywords:  Tianjin  Central city  Emergency shelter  Location suitability  Satisfaction  GIS
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